About Driveway Paving
About Asphalt Paving
If you are looking for some new pavement for your driveway or patio, consider asphalt paving. This option is environmentally friendly, cost effective, and attractive, too. When properly applied asphalt is much better for the environment, look, driveability and overall affordability. Most people don't think about all of the benefits available when pavement is utilized correctly and take regular roads and driveways for granted. There are so many beautiful options to choose from and many new products to help make your asphalt pave even more appealing.
You might be wondering exactly what types of asphalt paving are available. Basically, there are three main categories, each with its own unique qualities, costs, and installation requirements. Before making a decision on which type of pavement to use, it is important to understand and analyze the needs of your home, yard, business, or other property. Here is a quick overview of the different types of asphalt mixes and their uses.
Hot mix asphalt paving is extremely popular and is made by combining aggregate and cement. The hot mix allows for excellent drainage and crack resistance, while still providing a beautiful and highly flexible surface. Not only is it highly crack and dent resistant, but it can also provide increased durability for older homes. If cracked or chipped, however, this type of paving is less expensive than cold mix because of the added ingredients and additives, but it is still less expensive than a hot mix alone. Cold mix is slightly more expensive than hot mix because of the additional ingredients and additives.
An asphalt paving that is constructed from compacted gravel is the least expensive of the three options. The most commonly used type of this product is called rock gravel, because it is simply stone gravel that has been compacted. There are several reasons why this is the most cost effective form of paving, including the fact that it requires the least amount of labor to install. Because the gravel is compacted, there are not as much loose gravel at the bottom of the paving and therefore it will not cause as much damage. Another reason why it is less expensive than some of the other options is that it requires the least amount of maintenance. Once the stone has been compacted, it is fairly easy to keep it well maintained and if it becomes damaged, simply adding hot or cold water to the surface will fix the problem.
If you have an existing asphalt pavement surface that is damaged or cracked, you will need to repair or replace the damaged area before you begin paving. If you are replacing the entire surface of the driveway or a portion of the sidewalk, you will have to prepare the area by making sure it is clean, dry, free of debris, and level. If you are simply preparing the area to pave, you may use a brush to remove any loose dirt or grass. Once the area is ready, you can apply a sealer to the surface, which will help protect it from future weathering.
Since asphalt paving is done primarily as a vehicle accessory, it is important that you buy the right kind of asphalt and materials. Since the main purpose of asphalt paving is to waterproof the driveways of your home and business, you will need to ensure that it has a good water-proofing property. Water-proof asphalt is more expensive to purchase, but it is also better for your business since it will reduce the risk of slip and fall accidents. Since there are many different options to choose from when it comes to asphalt paving, you should be able to find a company that will provide both custom jobs and ready-to-pour asphalt shingles. If you decide to hire a contractor to handle the project, be sure to check his background and ask for references so you can get a feel for how he performs his job.
Asphalt paving is one of the most commonly used forms of construction today. This is due to its high adaptability and low cost. In addition, it is also considered to be a very practical option when it comes to home paving. However, it does have certain shortcomings that need to be taken note of. Read on to know about some of these and consider whether you should opt for asphalt or not.
One of the disadvantages of using an asphalt driveway is that it can be quite slippery. You need to make sure, therefore, that you drive your car carefully on it. And even if you do so, there is still a chance of your vehicle getting stuck on the asphalt. So, you should keep a good grip on the steering wheel and use all the available help you can. This is especially important if you are making a long distance drive.
There is also a possibility that asphalt might damage the surface underneath if it is not properly sealed. This is because asphalt is a petroleum product and petroleum products can cause damage to the environment. Therefore, you should make sure that the paved area is adequately sealed to make sure that it does not erode.
It is also important to remember that asphalt can crack when it gets too wet. If this happens, you will need to replace the area with new asphalt so that it does not get cracked again in future. Otherwise, you may end up spending more on repairing cracks that you have caused. In fact, asphalt cracks can be a real headache especially during heavy rains when the paver becomes very susceptible to water penetration.
Apart from this, asphalt is also susceptible to cracking when it is exposed to heat. This is especially true during summer months when the temperature is high. During this period, it is possible for the asphalt to get very soft and mushy. When this happens, it is much harder to seal the surface properly and repair any cracks that have developed.
Another problem that can occur with an asphalt paver is when it is being used improperly. For instance, when the asphalt paver is being used to pave driveways, it can easily grind over the edges of the driveway. The grout lines might also get damaged during this process. In fact, there are some homeowners who prefer using concrete or paved paths in front of their homes and driveways. However, they often forget that they should also seal these paths. Sealing the pathways will help to keep them protected from debris, grit, water and sand.
Homeowners should therefore find a qualified company to clean up their asphalt paver once in a while. These professionals will use a pressure washer to remove all the dirt and debris that have built up on the paver. They will then use a power washer to completely clean the water surface. After this is done, you can simply have the surfaces sealed and maintained by your local company.
By hiring a company to perform regular maintenance on your asphalt paver, you will be able to prevent some very common problems. For instance, if you find that the pavers have cracks, you can ask your local maintenance company to repair these cracks before they become larger. You can also ask them to apply new asphalt once a year. If you forget to do this, the asphalt will eventually wear out and begin to crack again. By properly maintaining your asphalt paver, you will be able to save yourself money in the long run because you will not have to call maintenance on a regular basis.
About Driveway Paving
The driveway paving job can be a daunting task to undertake. The options available for you are limited, and often what you do decide to use will depend upon the existing surrounding area. For those who live in a rural setting, such as those who live on the countryside, there is little options to get the driveway ready for the caravans coming through. In this case, it will be necessary to use natural stones or cement in the driveway.
Pavers are not always the best choice of material for a driveway paving project. While they may look like natural stone and act as a wonderful contrast to the darker, earthy tones of the soil, they cannot be properly maintained without the right sealer. Sealer comes in different types, and can be tailored to perfectly match the look and feel of your driveway paving project. If you do not want to invest in driveway pavers, then there are other options you can take into consideration.
One of which is interlocking paving, which allows you to have beautifully crafted interlocking pavers installed for your driveway paving projects. This is ideal for driveways, which are in need of repairs. The pavers lock together with the help of interlocking joints, and thus you need not exert any effort in driving the pavers apart. The advantage of this system is that you will save a lot of money that you would have otherwise had to spend on hiring workers to do the job for you.
Another option you have when it comes to driveway paving is asphalt driveway paving. There are many advantages when it comes to using asphalt versus concrete for your driveway paving project. First, asphalt is an excellent material for use on the outside of homes. It is extremely durable and will outlast concrete, even when it is left outdoors for quite some time.
In addition to this, there are also several concrete driveway paving pros that you should know about. For one thing, concrete does cost a little bit more than the other alternative materials like asphalt and brick driveway paving stones. However, you can always count on its longevity and resistance towards all types of weather. Moreover, you will not be required to spend a lot of time in treating the concrete once it gets cracked. Concrete cracks usually get repaired by applying a special cement mixture to fix the damage. You can also choose from a variety of designs for the pavers of your driveway.
On the other hand, brick driveway paving pros include the fact that you will no longer have to worry about finding the right pattern for the exterior of your home. Bricks come in a wide array of colors, shapes and sizes, so you will always be able to find the right design to complement the architecture of your house. Pavers that are made out of natural stone come at a much higher price, but they are also far more durable compared to the composite materials such as asphalt. Finally, you will not have to spend a lot of time and effort in order to keep the driveway clean and free from damage, as concrete usually requires very little maintenance.
Driveway paving is a very important process if you want to improve the appearance and value of your home. It is a very practical choice, because it allows you to create a more attractive space that can make your home look more appealing. Of course, it is essential to keep in mind that not all of your driveways need to be paved. In fact, there are many instances where the only purpose of having a paved driveway is for the sake of improving the curb appeal of the property.
Asphalt and concrete driveways are two of the most common types of driveway paving materials, although there are some homeowners who prefer the use of rubber for driveways. Regardless of what you decide on, you should always remember that you should always choose the material wisely. Concrete and asphalt are both excellent choices, but the effectiveness of each material can vary greatly. Paved driveways can be used on nearly any surface, although they are typically best used on asphalt or concrete surfaces. Ultimately, it all comes down to your personal preference and budget.
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About Cadence, ID
In Western musical theory, a cadence (Latin cadentia, "a falling") is the end of a phrase in which the melody or harmony creates a sense of full or partial resolution, especially in music of the 16th century onwards. A harmonic cadence is a progression of two or more chords that concludes a phrase, section, or piece of music. A rhythmic cadence is a characteristic rhythmic pattern that indicates the end of a phrase. A cadence can be labeled "weak" or "strong" depending on the impression of finality it gives. While cadences are usually classified by specific chord or melodic progressions, the use of such progressions does not necessarily constitute a cadence—there must be a sense of closure, as at the end of a phrase. Harmonic rhythm plays an important part in determining where a cadence occurs.
Cadences are strong indicators of the tonic or central pitch of a passage or piece. The musicologist Edward Lowinsky proposed that the cadence was the "cradle of tonality".
Cadence names may differ between US usage and British usage. This article follows US usage.
Cadences are divided into four main types, according to their harmonic progression: authentic (typically perfect authentic or imperfect authentic), half, plagal, and deceptive. Typically, phrases end on authentic or half cadences, and the terms plagal and deceptive refer to motion that avoids or follows a phrase-ending cadence. Each cadence can be described using the Roman numeral system of naming chords.
An authentic cadence is a cadence from the dominant chord (V) to the root chord (I). A seventh above the root may be added to create a dominant seventh chord (V), and the dominant chord may be preceded by a cadential 6
4 chord. The Harvard Concise Dictionary of Music and Musicians says, "This cadence is a microcosm of the tonal system, and is the most direct means of establishing a pitch as tonic. It is virtually obligatory as the final structural cadence of a tonal work." Authentic cadences are generally classified as either perfect or imperfect. The phrase perfect cadence is sometimes used as a synonym for authentic cadence but can also have a more precise meaning depending on the chord voicing.
In a perfect authentic cadence (PAC), the chords are in root position – that is, the roots of both chords are in the bass – and the tonic is in the highest voice of the final chord. This is generally considered the strongest type of cadence and often found at structurally defining moments. Music theorist William Caplin writes that the perfect authentic cadence "achieves complete harmonic and melodic closure."
There are three types of imperfect authentic cadences (IAC):
An evaded cadence moves from a dominant seventh third inversion chord (V
2) to a first inversion tonic chord (I6
). Because the seventh must fall stepwise, it forces the cadence to resolve to the less stable first inversion chord. To achieve this, a root position V usually changes to a V4
2 right before resolution, thereby "evading" the cadence. (See also inverted cadence below.)
A half cadence (also called an imperfect cadence or semicadence) is any cadence ending on V, whether preceded by II (V of V), ii, vi, IV, or I—or any other chord. Because it sounds incomplete or suspended, the half cadence is considered a weak cadence that calls for continuation.
Several types of half cadences are described below.
A Phrygian half cadence is a half cadence iv–V in minor, so named because the semitonal motion in the bass (sixth degree to fifth degree) resembles the half-step heard in the ii–I of the 15th-century cadence in the Phrygian mode. Due to its being a survival from modal Renaissance harmony this cadence gives an archaic sound, especially when preceded by v (v–iv6–V). A characteristic gesture in Baroque music, the Phrygian cadence often concluded a slow movement immediately followed by a faster one. With the addition of motion in the upper part to the sixth degree, it becomes the Landini cadence.
A Lydian cadence is similar to the Phrygian half cadence, involving iv–V in the minor. The difference is that in the Lydian cadence, the whole iv6 is raised by a half step. In other words, the Phrygian half cadence begins with the first chord built on scale degree , while the Lydian half cadence is built on the scale degree ♯.
Burgundian cadences became popular in Burgundian music. Note the parallel fourths between the upper voices.
The rare plagal half cadence involves a I–IV progression. Like an authentic cadence (V–I), the plagal half cadence involves an ascending fourth (or, by inversion, a descending fifth). The plagal half cadence is a weak cadence, ordinarily at the ending of an antecedent phrase, after which a consequent phrase commences. One example of this use is in "Auld Lang Syne". But in one very unusual occurrence – the end of the exposition of the first movement of Brahms' Clarinet Trio, Op. 114—it is used to complete not just a musical phrase but an entire section of a movement.
A plagal cadence is a cadence from IV to I. It is also known as the Amen cadence because of its frequent setting to the text "Amen" in hymns.
A minor plagal cadence, also known as a perfect plagal cadence, uses the minor iv instead of a major IV. With a very similar voice leading to a perfect cadence, the minor plagal cadence is a strong resolution to the tonic.
The Moravian cadence, which can be found in the works of Leoš Janáček and Bohuslav Martinů amongst others, is a form of plagal cadence in which the outer notes of the first chord each move inwards by a tone to the second. (IV → I6). An early suggestion of the Moravian cadence in classical music occurs in Antonín Dvořák’s New World Symphony.
"A cadence is called 'interrupted', 'deceptive' or 'false' where the penultimate, dominant chord is not followed by the expected tonic, but by another one, often the submediant." This is the most important irregular resolution, most commonly V–vi (or V7–♭VI) in major or V–VI in minor. This is considered a weak cadence because of the "hanging" (suspended) feeling it invokes.
At the beginning of the final movement of Gustav Mahler's 9th Symphony, the listener hears a string of many deceptive cadences progressing from V to IV.
One of the most striking uses of this cadence is in the A-minor section at the end of the exposition in the first movement of Brahms' Third Symphony. The music progresses to an implied E minor dominant (B) with a rapid chromatic scale upwards but suddenly sidesteps to C major. The same device is used again in the recapitulation; this time the sidestep is—as one would expect—to F major, the tonic key of the whole Symphony.
The interrupted cadence is also frequently used in popular music. For example, the Pink Floyd song "Bring the Boys Back Home" ends with such a cadence (at approximately 0:45–50).
An inverted cadence (also called a medial cadence) inverts the last chord. It may be restricted only to the perfect and imperfect cadence, or only to the perfect cadence, or it may apply to cadences of all types. To distinguish them from this form, the other, more common forms of cadences listed above are known as radical cadences.
Cadences can also be classified by their rhythmic position:
Metrically accented cadences are considered stronger and are generally of greater structural significance. In the past, the terms masculine and feminine were sometimes used to describe rhythmically "strong" or "weak" cadences, but this terminology is no longer acceptable to some. Susan McClary has written extensively on the gendered terminology of music and music theory in her book Feminine Endings.
The example below shows a metrically unaccented cadence (IV–V–I). The final chord is postponed to fall on a weak beat.
A Picardy third (or Picardy cadence) is a harmonic device that originated in Western music in the Renaissance era. It refers to the use of a major chord of the tonic at the end of a musical section that is either modal or in a minor key. The example below shows a picardy third in the final chord, from J.S. Bach's Jesu, meine Freude (Jesus, My Joy), mm. 12–13.
The example below shows a cadence featuring an upper leading-tone from a well-known 16th-century lamentation, the debate over which was documented in Rome c. 1540. The final three written notes in the upper voice are B–C–D, in which case a trill on C produces D. However, convention implied a C♯, and a cadential trill of a whole tone on the second to last note produces D♯/E♭, the upper leading-tone of D♮. Presumably, the debate was over whether to use C♯–D♯ or C♯–D for the trill.
Medieval and Renaissance cadences are based upon dyads rather than chords. The first theoretical mention of cadences comes from Guido of Arezzo's description of the occursus in his Micrologus, where he uses the term to mean where the two lines of a two-part polyphonic phrase end in a unison.
A clausula or clausula vera ("true close") is a dyadic or intervallic, rather than chordal or harmonic, cadence. In a clausula vera, two voices approach an octave or unison through stepwise motion in contrary motion.
In three voices, the third voice often adds a falling fifth creating a cadence similar to the authentic cadence in tonal music.
According to Carl Dahlhaus, "as late as the 13th century the half step was experienced as a problematic interval not easily understood, as the remainder between the perfect fourth and the ditone:
In a melodic half step, listeners of the time perceived no tendency of the lower tone toward the upper, or the upper toward the lower. The second tone was not the 'goal' of the first. Instead, musicians avoided the half step in clausulas because, to their ears, it lacked clarity as an interval. Beginning in the 13th century, cadences begin to require motion in one voice by half step and the other a whole step in contrary motion.
A plagal cadence was found occasionally as an interior cadence, with the lower voice in two-part writing moving up a perfect fifth or down a perfect fourth.
A pause in one voice may also be used as a weak interior cadence. The example below, Lassus's Qui vult venire post me, mm. 3–5, shows a pause in the third measure.
In counterpoint, an evaded cadence is one where one of the voices in a suspension does not resolve as expected, and the voices together resolved to a consonance other than an octave or unison (a perfect fifth, a sixth, or a third).
The Corelli cadence, or Corelli clash, named for its association with the violin music of the Corelli school, is a cadence characterized by a major and/or minor second clash between the tonic and the leading-tone or the tonic and supertonic. An example is shown below.
Another "clash cadence", the English cadence, is a contrapuntal pattern particular to the authentic or perfect cadence. It features the blue seventh against the dominant chord, which in the key of C would be B♭ and G–B♮–D. Popular with English composers of the High Renaissance and Restoration periods in the 16th and 17th centuries, the English cadence is described as sounding archaic or old-fashioned. It was first given its name in the 20th century.
The hallmark of this device is the dissonant augmented octave (compound augmented unison) produced by a false relation between the split seventh scale degree, as shown below in an excerpt from O sacrum convivium by Thomas Tallis. The courtesy accidental on the tenor's G♮ is editorial.
A Landini cadence (also known as a Landini sixth, Landini sixth cadence, or under-third cadence) is a cadence that was used extensively in the 14th and early 15th century. It is named after Francesco Landini, a composer who used them profusely. Similar to a clausula vera, it includes an escape tone in the upper voice, which briefly narrows the interval to a perfect fifth before the octave.
The classical and romantic periods of musical history provide many examples of the way the different cadences are used in context.
Mozart’s Romanze from his Piano Concerto No. 20 follows a familiar pattern of a pair of phrases, one ending with a half (imperfect) cadence and the other with an authentic cadence:
The presto movement from Beethoven’s String Quartet Op 130 follows the same pattern, but in a minor key:
The Hallelujah Chorus from Handel’s Messiah culminates powerfully with an iterated plagal cadence:
Debussy’s prelude ‘La Fille aux Cheveux de Lin’ contains a plagal cadence in its 2nd and 3rd bars :
One of the most famous endings in all music is found in the concluding bars of Wagner’s opera Tristan und Isolde, where the dissonant chord in the opening phrase of the opera is finally resolved "three enormous acts and five hours later" in the form of a minor plagal cadence:
In Bach's harmonization of the chorale ‘Wachet auf’, a phrase ending in a deceptive cadence repeats with the cadence changed to an authentic one:
The exposition of the first movement of Beethoven’s Piano Sonata No. 21 (The Waldstein Sonata), Op. 53 features a minor key passage where an authentic (perfect) cadence precedes a deceptive (interrupted) one:
Dvořák’s Slavonic Dance, Op. 72, No. 2 features deceptive (interrupted), half (imperfect) and authentic (perfect) cadences within its first sixteen bars:
Debussy's Prelude “La fille aux cheveux de lin” (see also above) concludes with a passage featuring a deceptive (interrupted) cadence that progresses, not from V–VI, but from V–IV:
Some varieties of deceptive cadence that go beyond the usual V–VI pattern lead to some startling effects. For example, a particularly dramatic and abrupt deceptive cadence occurs in the second Presto movement of Beethoven’s Piano Sonata No. 30, Op. 109, bars 97–112, "a striking passage that used to pre-occupy theorists". The music at this point is in B minor, and carries the expectation is that the chord of F sharp (Chord V) will be followed by the tonic chord of B. However, "Dynamics become softer and softer; dominant and tonic chords of B minor appear isolated on the first beat of a bar, separated by silences: until in sudden fortissimo ... the recapitulation bursts on us in the tonic E minor, the B minor dominants left unresolved."
An equally startling example occurs in J.S. Bach's Toccata and Fugue in F major, BWV 540:
According to Richard Taruskin, in this Toccata, "the already much-delayed resolution is thwarted (m204) by what was the most spectacular 'deceptive cadence' anyone had composed as of the second decade of the eighteenth century ... producing an especially pungent effect." Hermann Keller describes the effect of this cadence as follows: "the splendour of the end with the famous third inversion of the seventh chord, who would not be enthralled by that?"
Chopin's Fantaisie, Op. 49, composed over a century later in 1841, features a similar harmonic jolt:
A deceptive cadence is a useful means for extending a musical narrative. In the closing passage of Bach’s Prelude in F minor from Book II of the Well-Tempered Clavier, the opening theme returns and seems headed towards a possible final resolution on an authentic (perfect) cadence. What the listener may expect is:
Instead, at bar 60, Bach inserts a deceptive cadence (V–VI in F minor), leading to a lengthy digression of some dozen bars before reaching resolution on the final (V–I) cadence.
A similar passage occurs at the conclusion of Mozart's Fantasia in D minor, K397:
In jazz, a cadence is often referred to as a turnaround, chord progressions that lead back and resolve to the tonic (for example, the ii–V–I turnaround). Turnarounds may be used at any point and not solely before the tonic.
Half-step cadences are common in jazz if not cliché. For example, the ascending diminished seventh chord half-step cadence, which—using a secondary diminished seventh chord—creates momentum between two chords a major second apart (with the diminished seventh in between).
The descending diminished seventh chord half-step cadence is assisted by two common tones.
Rhythmic cadencesoften feature a final note longer than the prevailing note values and this often follows a characteristic rhythmic pattern repeated at the end of the phrase. The example below shows a characteristic rhythmic cadence at the end of the first phrase of J.S. Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 in G major, BMV 1048, mvmt. I, mm. 1–2: