About Pothole Repair
Different Types of Pothole Repair
There are many ways to approach pothole repair. Below are some of the methods you may encounter when hiring an asphalt contractor.
If you are looking for a fast, permanent solution to pothole repair, infrared patching is the way to go. Not only does this method use recycled asphalt, but it also creates a seamless weld that prevents water penetration and offers an attractive solution for potholes. It is also a much greener option than other conventional methods. A random sampling of specification sheets shows that few pothole repair projects are using infrared repair.
Infrared patching takes between 20 and 30 minutes to complete and traffic can continue shortly after. To perform the procedure, the area to be repaired is marked. A 6' x 8' infrared unit heats the asphalt. After heating, the asphalt is raked away and new asphalt laid down. In the meantime, cracked surfaces continue to deteriorate and cause more damage. This leads to higher repair costs and an increased risk of accidents.
There are two main types of pothole repair methods: the throw-and-roll method and the spray-in method. The former is used to temporarily patch a pothole, while the latter involves repairing it permanently. In the throw-and-roll method, the pothole is filled with asphalt patch materials, which are then rolled over by heavy vehicles. The throw-and-roll method is a temporary solution, which is why it's commonly used during the winter when the roads are most likely to be damaged. However, the method is very labor-intensive and expensive.
When you use the "throw-and-roll" method, you simply shovel the patch into the pothole and roll it into place. This method is usually used during the winter months because it does not require compaction. The throw-and-roll method is more effective when using high-quality materials, which will ensure the pothole patch stays intact and lasts for a long time. However, it only works well in sub-zero temperatures.
One of the most common and effective pothole repair methods is to use a surface seal. The idea behind this type of repair is to fill the pothole with a material that binds to the surface and is flexible enough to go into cracks and other areas of the road. This material is relatively inexpensive, and it can be applied easily by hand, without the need for special equipment. After preparing the area, the surface seal can be applied.
Crack sealing is best done in moderate temperatures and immediately after the crack has developed. It's crucial to route out and clean out cracks before applying sealant. Fog seal is a light application of diluted asphalt emulsion that will restore flexibility to aged pavement. It may also postpone the need for a BST or non-structural overlay. While fog seals aren't always effective for pothole repair, they may be an excellent option for pothole repair.
Full-depth patching is the preferred method for repairing potholes. Full-depth patching involves the application of asphalt over an existing pothole. The materials used must be fresh hot asphalt plant mix and meet the requirements set forth by the Colorado State Highway Specifications. You can request a manufacturer's certification upon request. Full-depth patching will increase the strength and durability of the asphalt overlay. Listed below are some tips on how to patch a pothole using full-depth patching.
Full-depth patching requires removing four inches or more of the top layer of asphalt or concrete. In some cases, excavation tools may be necessary. This process is more difficult and may require removal of drainage or sub-grade. The patch is then filled with a dense hot mix asphalt mixture and leveled. A well-filled patch is slightly overfilled. It may be necessary to repair drainage beneath the damaged area before applying the asphalt patch.
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About Mead, WA
Mead is a drink widely considered to have been discovered prior to the advent of both agriculture and ceramic pottery in the pre-Neolithic, due to the prevalence of naturally occurring fermentation in nature and the widespread distribution of eusocial honey-producing insects worldwide;as a result, it is hard to pinpoint the exact historical origin of mead given the possibility of multiple discovery and/or potential knowledge transfer between early humans prior to recorded history. For example, mead can be produced by flooding a bee nest, and it has been speculated that late Paleolithic African hunter-gatherers possibly discovered how to make "short" or quick meads via this method, ready to drink within a few days or weeks, as a means of making water safer to drink and pleasant to consume. With the eventual rise of ceramic pottery and increasing use of fermentation in food processing to preserve surplus agricultural crops, evidence of mead begins to show up in the archaeological record more clearly, with pottery vessels from northern China dating from at least 7000 BCE discovered containing chemical signatures consistent with the presence of honey, rice, and organic compounds associated with fermentation. In Europe, mead is first described from residual samples found in ceramics of the Bell Beaker Culture (c. 2800–1800 BCE).
The earliest surviving written record of mead is possibly the soma mentioned in the hymns of the Rigveda, one of the sacred books of the historical Vedic religion and (later) Hinduism dated around 1700–1100 BCE.
The Abri, a northern subgroup of the Taulantii, were known to the ancient Greek writers for their technique of preparing mead from honey.
Taulantii could prepare mead, wine from honey like the Abri.
During the Golden Age of ancient Greece, mead was said to be the preferred drink. Aristotle (384–322 BCE) discussed mead made in Illiria in his Meteorologica and elsewhere, while Pliny the Elder (23–79 CE) called mead militites in his Naturalis Historia and differentiated wine sweetened with honey or "honey-wine" from mead. The Hispanic-Roman naturalist Columella gave a recipe for mead in De re rustica, about 60 CE.
Ancient Greek writer Pytheas described a grain and honey drink similar to mead that he encountered while travelling in Thule. According to James Henry Ramsay this was an earlier version of Welsh metheglin. When 12 year old Prince Charles II visited Wales in 1642 Welsh metheglin was served at the feast as a symbol of Welsh presence in the emerging British identity in the years between the Union of the Crowns in 1603 and the creation of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707.
There is a poem attributed to the Welsh bard Taliesin, who lived around 550 CE, called the Kanu y med or "Song of Mead" (Cân y medd). The legendary drinking, feasting, and boasting of warriors in the mead hall is echoed in the mead hall Din Eidyn (modern-day Edinburgh) as depicted in the poem Y Gododdin, attributed to the poet Aneirin who would have been a contemporary of Taliesin. In the Old English epic poem Beowulf, the Danish warriors drank mead. In both Insular Celtic and Germanic poetry, mead was the primary heroic or divine drink, see Mead of poetry.
Mead (Old Irish mid) was a popular drink in medieval Ireland. Beekeeping was brought around the 5th century, traditionally attributed to Modomnoc, and mead came with it. A banquet hall on the Hill of Tara was known as Tech Mid Chuarda ("house of the circling of mead"). Mead was often infused with hazelnuts. Many other legends of saints mention mead, as does that of the Children of Lir.
Later, taxation and regulations governing the ingredients of alcoholic beverages led to commercial mead becoming a more obscure beverage until recently. Some monasteries kept up the traditions of mead-making as a by-product of beekeeping, especially in areas where grapes could not be grown.